Glossary

A
  • Absorption : Process for separating gases by transferring a gas phase to a liquid phase
  • Adsorption : Gas separation process by fixing the molecules on a solid support
  • Aerobic : Biological condition in the presence of oxygen
  • Ammonia : Family of chemical compounds used in the carbon dioxide capture and especially implemented in the step of upgrading biogas to biomethane
  • Anaerobic : Biological condition in the absence of oxygen
  • ATEX : Explosive Atmospheres. Réglementation issued from two European directives 94/9/CE and 1999/92/CE
  • Activated carbon : Carbon composite materials used in the separation and purification of gas due to its very large surface area
  • Agricultural waste : Wastes from agricultural activity and which include waste clippings and waste from the production of agricultural products
  • Agri-food industry waste : Wastes arising from agro-food industries
B
  • Biofuel : Gaseous or liquid fuel from biomass
  • Bio desulfurization : Biological process for removing hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans present in the biogas
  • Bio filtration : Filtration that involves biological processes
  • Biogas : Biogas is the gas produced during the fermentation of animal or vegetable organic matter in the absence of oxygen. This digestion can occur naturally in landfill sites or can be induced and controlled in digesters. Biogas is mainly composed of methane and carbon dioxide
  • Bio-CNG : Gaseous or liquid fuel from biogas purification or conversion of hydrogen from renewable sources and containing mainly methane in sufficient concentration to be used as fuel in vehicles
  • Biomethane : Biomethane is biogas that has been purified to contain mainly methane to be injected into the natural gas grid or used as fuel
  • Biomass gas : Gases from the biochemical or thermochemical biomass conversion and which contain methane or hydrogen
  • Biogas valorization : Energy production from methane present in the biogas
C
  • Catalyst : Materials used to increase the chemical reaction kinetics and usually with significantly lower temperature than what would be required without the implementation of this catalyst
  • Catox : Removal process by catalytic reaction of methane present in the off-gas from such an upgrading step by gas permeation
  • CH4 : Methane molecule composed of a carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms
  • Chromatography : Operation of separating the constituents of a gas in a column to allow qualitative and quantitative analysis
  • CO2 : Molecule of carbon dioxide composed of a carbon atom and two oxygen atoms
  • CHP : Operation which involves the simultaneous production of electricity and heat from biogas
  • Container : Closed metal structure for the transport of goods or the installation of equipment to shelter from the weather
  • CIW : Common Industrial Waste
  • Carbon foot-print : Indicator and method of evaluation that recognize the impact of a product or activity on the environment through the amount of carbon dioxide emitted during the production cycles and life
  • Carbon dioxyde : Molecule composed of a carbon atom and two oxygen atoms
  • CNG : Compressed natural gas to be used as fuel in vehicles
  • Chemical washing : Operation that enables a mass transfer between a gas phase and a liquid phase
  • Corrective maintenance : Maintenance operation of a facility due to a failure or defect
  • Construction manager : Specialized company whose role is to assist the Client in the project
D
  • Detailled engineering : Front-end design and engineering for a project
  • Deoxo : A method of removing oxygen from biogas through catalytic reaction
  • Dehumidification : Step of reducing the humidity of the biogas by condensation of part of the water present
  • Dehydration : Operation of removing almost all of the water present in the biogas and thus achieve the required specification for injection of biomethane into the network or its use as biofuel
  • Desulphurisation : Preprocessing unit operation of removing hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans present in the biogas
  • Digestates : Byproduct of the anaerobic digestion, composed of non-biodegradable organic matter, bacteria, minerals, and water
  • Digester : Biological reactor in which the reaction is controlled to transform biomass and to enable biogas production
  • Digestion : Biological process of degradation of organic material in the absence of oxygen and that produces carbon dioxide and methane
E
  • Energy crops : Agricultural crops for energy production or biofuel
  • EPCC : Engineering, Procurement, Construction, Commissioning
  • EPIC : Engineering, Procurement, Installation, Commissioning
F
  • Filtration : Separation process of different molecules, chemical compounds or particles
  • Feasability study : Peliminary studies in order to determine de feasability of a projet
G
  • Gas analyser : Equipment consisting of sensors and an electronic system for measuring concentrations of chemical compounds in a gas
  • Green Wastes : Wastes from agricultural activity, the size of the trees and mowing lawns
  • Grid injection : Operation that consistes of injecting biomethane after compression and verification of composition into the natural gas grid
  • Gas permeation : Solubilization-migration phenomenon of gas molecules in a polymeric membrane
H
  • Halogenated compounds : Organic compounds present in the biogas and containing varying concentrations of fluorine or chlorine
  • Hydrogen sulphide : Molecule composed of a sulfur atom and two hydrogen atoms
  • Heavy metals : Group of metals present in small quantities in the biogas
  • High heating value : The quantity known as higher heating value (HHV) (or gross energy or upper heating value or gross calorific value (GCV) or higher calorific value (HCV)) is determined by bringing all the products of combustion back to the original pre-combustion temperature, and in particular condensing any vapor produced
I
  • ICPE : French classification "Installation Classée Protection de l'Environnement"
  • Infra-red : Wavelength area of the light spectrum and which is used in the analysis of the chemical composition of a biogas
  • Instrumentation : Equipment for the measurement of physical or chemical quantities such as pressure and temperature and for the control and operation of a process
L
  • Landfill : Facility which receives urban and common industrial waste
  • Low heating value : The quantity known as lower heating value (LHV) (net calorific value (NCV) or lower calorific value (LCV)) is determined by subtracting the heat of vaporization of the water vapor from the higher heating value
M
  • Membrane filtration : Gas purification method which uses gas permeation membranes for separating carbon dioxide and methane
  • MDEA : Type of amine used in carbon dioxyde capture
  • Membranes : Polymeric materials, often with an asymmetric structure which have characteristics that allow to perform separation and enrichment of a gas
  • Mercaptans : Organic compounds that contain an-SH group and that are present in biogas
  • Methanation : Reaction that consists of transforming hydrogen into methane. Methane product may then be injected into the natural gas network
  • Methane : Molecule composed of a carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms
  • Methanization : Biological process of degradation of organic material in the absence of oxygen and produces carbon dioxide and methane
  • Methanogenic : Which produces methane during its metabolism
  • Minority compounds : Chemical compounds present in the biogas in low concentrations, usually less than 1%, and that must be removed during the production of biomethane
  • Modules : Set of hollow fiber membranes assembled in a metal tube and used in a gas purification process
  • Municipal wastes : Portion of municipal waste from the daily household activity
  • Molecular sieve : Granular materials with a high specific surface and pores of varying sizes for gas separation
N
  • Nitrogen : Gas present in biogas in low concentration and which may require special treatment before injection of biomethane into the natural gas grid
O
  • Off-gas : Part of the outcome of biogas treatment process or upgrading step and mostly made of minority chemicals and carbon dioxide
  • Oxygen : Gas present in biogas in low concentration and which may require special treatment before injection of biomethane into the natural gas grid
P
  • Preliminary engineering : Preliminary engineering and cost estimates for a project
  • Primary energy : Total energy contained in the biogas and recoverable in the form of heat, electricity or biomethane
  • Preventive maintenance : Maintenance operation of a facility to maintain the proper functioning and prevent failures and defects
  • Project owner : Owner of a facility, such as a methanization plant
  • Palladium : Precious metal used in catalytic gas treatment processes
  • Permeate : Part of the biogas that has passed through the polymer membrane during a step of upgrading through gas permeation . The permeate gas is composed mainly of carbon with the presence of other compounds such as methane, water and oxygen
  • Platinium : Precious metal used in catalytic gas treatment processes
  • Pretreatments : Steps implemented upstream of treatment of biogas or upgrading and that includes mainly removal of chemical compounds such as hydrogen sulfide or VOC
  • Purification : Process of removing minority compounds of a gas to obtain a gas of higher purity
R
  • Regenerable : Refers to a material used in gas separation and which can be regenerated to be used again
  • Renewable : Refers to an energy that does not call for fossil fuels such as oil
S
  • Sludges : Byproduct of aerobic treatment of municipal or industrial wastewater
  • Sustainable development : Concept developed since the late twentieth century, which aims to take into account the environmental and social aspects in the development of humanity
  • Separation : Step of separating the constituents of a gas, for example, to obtain a valuable product
  • Siloxanes : Organic compounds of human origin and which contain one or more silicon atoms
  • Skid : Set of equipment mounted on a metal support and prefabricated in a workshop before on site installation
T
  • Turn-key : Project entrusted to a general contractor and which includes all operations of design, construction and commissioning
  • Thermal regeneration : Step of regenerating a chemical solvent by heat in order to use it again in a washing column
  • Treatment : Process that consists of operations to transform a raw material into a valuable product
U
  • Urban wastes : Wastes from human activity
  • Upgrading : Step of separating methane from carbon dioxide to obtain a methane-rich gas, called biomethane, and that can be injected into the natural gas network
V
  • VOC : Organic compounds in the biogas at varying concentrations
  • Volatil Organic Compounds : Organic compounds in the biogas at varying concentrations
  • Valorization : Process whose objective is the transformation of a particular waste or raw product into a product or energy used by human activity
W
  • Washing column : Equipment consists of a column filled with packing, and other internal and intended to ensure contact of a gas to be purified with a chemical or physical solvent
  • Waste methanization : Process of producing biogas from waste
  • Waste water treatment plant : Plant designed for treatment of urban and industrial wastewater before discharge into the environment
  • WWTP : Waste Water Treatment Plant
  • Waste treatment : Operations designed to separate waste into different parts to prepare a valorization or landfilling
  • Waste valorization : Processing of waste intended to produce usable by-products or energy